The earliest archaeological evidence for wheat cultivation comes from the
Bread is the best-known product of wheat, often synonymous with food.
Flour, grain, beer, straw, and chaff are also produced from the wheat plant.
Wheat, like barley, rye, maize, rice, and oats, is a cereal. Wheat, like all cereals, produces a specialized fruit, a grain, in which the coat of the fruit and the coat of the seed are fused.
Each grain consists of a minute embryo (the germ), a large amount of starch (the endosperm), and the fruit coat (bran). When mature, the wheat is cut and after this, is beaten or pounded to remove the grain (threshed).
Wheat easily processed into various types of food. Wheat is the major ingredient in most breads, crackers, cookies, doughnuts, muffins, macaroni, pizza, and many prepared dishes. Wheat is common thickener in soups and sauces.
Semolina is coarsely ground durum wheat, a highly glutinous (hard) wheat. it is made into the staple Couscous. Semolina is used in many brands of dried pasta because of its ability to stand up to kneading and molding.
Burgul (aka bulgur)
The Greeks believed burgul was a gift from Demeter, the goddess of agriculture.
Whole grains contain the entire grain kernel, the bran, germ, and endosperm (heart). The outer covering is the part that contains the grain’s fiber and many of its vitamins and minerals.
Burgul is man's oldest recorded use of wheat. Burgul is made by soaking and cooking the whole wheat kernel, drying it and then removing part of the bran and cracking the remaining kernel into small pieces.
Its uses are numerous from salads to soup, from breads to desserts. It is a nutritious extender and thickener for meat dishes and soups. Bulgur will absorb twice its volume in water and can be used in place of rice in any recipe.
Cracked wheat is very similar in nutrition and texture to burgul. It is the whole kernel broken into small pieces, but has not been pre-cooked and dried.
Cracked wheat can be added to baked goods and can replace rice or other grains in most recipes.
Farina is made from the endosperm of the grain, which is milled to a fine granular consistency and then sifted.
The germ of the wheat kernel is often added to baked goods, casseroles and even beverages to improve the nutritional value . The protein quality of wheat germ is very comparable to that of milk.
The bran is the outer layer of the wheat kernel, often used for animal feed. It also makes a nutritious addition to baked goods, because it is a good source of fiber and is high in B vitamins, protein and iron.
The wheat berry is another name for the wheat kernel. The cooked whole kernel can be used as a meat extender, breakfast cereal or as a substitute for beans in chili, salad and baked dishes. They can also be used for grain-based main dishes, served as a side dish, or added to soups.
1 cups flour
1 cups margarine
1 1/4 cups granulated sugar
5 cups water
Heat the margarine in a saucepan very gently, and saute the flour until golden brown in the margarine for 40 minutes over low to moderate heat. When the flour turns light golden, put the sugar and water in a seperate saucepan and make a syrup by boiling gently. Add the syrup to the saucepan with flour and simmer for 20 minutes, then take out small pieces of the halva with a wooden spool, form into balls and place on a serving plate. Serve warm.
2 cups thick semolina
3/4 cup margarine
1 3/4 cups granulated sugar
3 1/2 cups milk
1/8 cup pine nuts
Melt the margarine in a pan, add pine nuts and semolina, and saute over heat a little less than moderate for 40-50 minutes while continuously stirring until the color of the pine nuts changes. Add the milk and stir well, add the sugar and continue to stir. Cover the pan and cook over low heat for 20 minutes. Remove the pan from heat, allow cooling for half an hour, stirring the halva thoroughly with a spoon.
Burgul Dumplings for soup
1 C of each burgul, flour, chopped onion, 1/4 C chopped parsley, salt & pepper
Put Burgul in a bowl and add enough water to cover. Let soak for thirty minutes . Saute the onion till translucent in some olive oil. Let cool. Add the flour, onions, herbs to the burghul and mix. Add more water if needed. Season with salt and pepper. Form the dumplings into small balls. Refrigerate until ready to use.
3/4 C burgul
2 c Cold water
1 c Chopped parsley
1 chopped onions
1/4 C chopped mint
1/4 C Olive oil
2 tabs Lemon juice
Salt & pepper
2 Firm ripe tomatoes
1/4 c Lemon juice mixed with 1/2 ts
Put burgul into a mixing bowl and add onion. Squeeze mixture with hand so that burgul absorbs onion flavour. Chop parsley and mint leaves and add to burgul . Beat olive oil with lemon juice and stir in salt and pepper. Add to salad and toss well. Peel and seed tomatoes and cut into dice. Gently stir into salad. Cover and chill before serving.
3/4 lb bulgur
3/4 lb ground beef or lamb
4 tabs chopped mint leaves
1 tabs chopped parsley
1 teas baharat
1 tesp cumin
1 tsp cinnamon
Salt and pepper
Oil for frying
Soak bulgur in water for 20 minutes. Squeeze out as much watr as possible. Place onion, burghur, 1/2 lb beef and herbs in a food processor and run the machine to grind it into a fine dough. Add a little water if it becomes too hard. Season with salt, pepper, pcumin and cinnamon. Chill.
Chop 1 onion and cook it in oil until translucent. Add beef and stir until the redness disappeared. Season with salt, pepper and baharat.
Wet your hands , make balls with the dough and using your finger to make a hole in each patty, aiming at having a thin wall. Place 2 teas filling inside each patty and close giving them an oval shape. Deep fry .
Chicken with Burgul
2 tabs olive oil
1 teas unsalted butter
1 chicken cut into pieces
salt & pepper
1 chopped onion
2 chopped cloves garlic
2 cups chicken soup
1 cup burgul
1 teaschopped fresh mint leaves
Heat oil with the butter in a large skillet over medium heat. Sprinkle the chicken pieces with the salt & pepper, and saute a few pieces at time, until golden brown. Transfer to a plate Remove all
but 1 some fat from the skillet. Add the onion and cook over low heat, add garlic and cook longer. Return the chicken to the skillet, stir in the soup and boil. Reduce the heat and simmer, covered, for 20 minutes. Remove the chicken to a plate.
Put burgul in skillet . Mix well and return the chiken. Cook , covered until chicken and burgul are tender and liquid has ebsorbed. Fluff bulgur and sprinkle mint leaves on top.
2 cups couscous
2 tabs olive oil
1 cup chicken broth
1 large onion
2 carrots peeled and julienned
1 zucchini peeled and julienned
1 sweet potato peeled and cubed
1 can garbanzo beans
1 tabs tomato paste
½ teas cinnamon
½ teas turmeric
Prepare Couscous by following package instructions. On high heat, sauté onion, carrots, sweet potato, zucchini for approximately 10 minutes. Reduce heat to medium and add chicken broth. Let mixture simmer. Add spices, tomato paste, and garbanzo beans. Stir in couscous. Cover and remove from burner. Garnish with nuts.